The vicious cycle of corruption

The vicious cycle of corruption

In a recent discussion with a colleague of mine, he postulated that the richest countries in the world are not necessarily religious; meaning that prayer has got nothing to do with how people progress in the world. He argued that most countries with the highest GDP per capita are in Europe, Asia and America, and are characterized by atheism and secularism. In comparison, according to him, you find the worst of poverty in the world among the most religious nations like our dear country Nigeria.

In defining rich or poor countries, economists usually adopt Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures, per capital measures, Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) measures, or a combination of these methods. While GDP may not provide a clear picture of the level of wealth or poverty of a nation because of the distorting effects of population size, currency conversion etc., GDP per capital adjusted for purchasing power parity is usually the most reliable yardstick to gauge the living conditions in a country. GDP is defined as the total value of goods and services produced within a country.

According to the Global Finance Magazine, “A more accurate picture of living conditions begins with dividing the total production by the number of people, to look at GDP per capita. Per capita GDP tells a little more about how much wealth might be available to each individual person”.1

The Magazine added that without adjusting for currency fluctuations or the varying cost of necessary items such as food, clothing and shelter, a true picture of living conditions would not emerge. Quoting from the Magazine, “To know whether a country’s citizens are wealthy, we want to understand how much they are able to buy. Thus, a final adjustment factor is purchasing power”.

In a report published in February 2017 and based on data from 2016 report of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Global Finance Magazine listed Qatar, Luxembourg and Macao with adjusted GDP per capital of $129,726; $101,936 and $96,147 respectively as the top three richest countries in the world. Others are Singapore ($87,082); Brunei ($79,710); Kuwait ($71,263); Ireland ($69,374) and Norway ($69,296) in the 4th to 8th position. The 30th position is occupied by Japan with a GDP per capita of $38,893.

Nigeria’s GDP per capital in 2016 was $2,458. According to Trading Economics2, this translated to 19% of world average. Although this may have been affected by the economic recession that hit the country in 2016, the highest GDP per capita since 2008 was recorded in 2014 at $2,563. The average for Nigeria from 1960 to 2016 was $1,648.

The top ten most religious countries in the world (in the order of highest ranking) include Saudi Arabia, Israel, Iran, India, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, Jordan, Egypt, Oman and Turkey.

United Arab Emirates (UAE) which occupies the 5th position in the top 10 most religious nations, sits on the 9th position of the world’s top 30 richest countries. Logically speaking, then, my colleague’s argument that the world’s richest countries are not religious does not hold water. At least, the UAE is not an exception, but a proof of the fact that being prayerful does not preclude success. There are many factors that inhibit poor countries of the world from advancing in development and improving standards of living.

One common factor is endemic corruption which is an absolute denial of God, His will and His kingdom. Corruption is a breach of the virtue of justice because it denies others what is due to them. It goes against the virtues of charity, honesty and fortitude. It breaches the greatest commandment of God – love of God and love of neighbour (Mk 12:28-34). So why does the society face the menace of corruption?

There is, what I may call, the vicious cycle of corruption or the corruption loop. By this, I mean that corruption is the cause of even more corruption.

Recently, the Nigerian senate revealed that Nigerians spend about $1 billion (N360 billion) annually in foreign medical treatment. This, according to them, is because of the poor state of public and private health facilities in Nigeria. Policy makers have destroyed the medical services and reduced most of our former centres of medical excellence to mere consulting rooms or even just mortuaries. The rot in this sector is caused by corrupt practices in the form of diversion of budget allocations to the sector into private pockets, poor remuneration of medical personnel among others. These are clear forms of endemic corruption.

In a similar development, it was reported that in 2016 alone, Nigerians spent over $2 billion (N720 billion) as capital flight on education.  This is a reflection of the lack of confidence in the quality of primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria. The cause of the defamed quality of Nigerian education products is the fact that, albeit with a low budget allocation to the sector, funds earmarked for education sector are not usually channeled appropriately to the sector as most of it are usually stolen for private use.

Selfishness, fear of the future and injustice are at the heart of corruption in Nigeria, and corruption is the root cause of Nigeria’s underdevelopment. This is exacerbated by the absence of strong institutions and systems to holistically address the ravaging corruption. The justice system is weak and itself immersed in stupendous corruption.

I am not a fan for the buzz phrase “strong institutions”. In my view, Nigeria as a nation has all the institutions (even more than necessary); has the laws and the enforcement systems to guarantee a big war chest to end corruption. But alas, the goat always eats the yam put in her care. In my interactions with various government agencies, I have seen the penchant of public officials to grab every opportunity to corruptly enrich themselves at the expense of the public interest. It appears some of them think that the nation is up for grabs and the resources will soon run out.

Why this penchant? The fear of the future plays a significant role here. Stolen funds will assist the Nigerian to assure him/herself that if he gets sick, he/she can afford foreign medical treatment since there are no assurances of any improvement in medical care at home. He/she would want to save up more money to ensure that his five children acquire foreign education since they have destroyed the local universities through embezzlement of funds allocated to such institutions, and destructive education policies. This is why I see this as the vicious cycle of corruption.

Now, what has our underdevelopment got to do with our prayerfulness? The proliferation of churches is not a measure of godliness. Those who worship God do it in truth and in spirit (Jn. 4:23-24).  We worship God when our attitudes, actions, and words declare that He is worthy of our praise. If we are good Christians, we will identify with the Christian virtue of justice, and charity and we will have love of God and of our neighbor. The absence of justice is evident in the “dog-eat-dog” syndrome we have seen in Nigeria.

Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted stated that3 “Justice is the virtue that enables us to assume our responsibilities and to give others their due”. The Catechism of the Catholic Church (#1807) teaches that “justice is the moral virtue that consists in the constant and firm will to give their due to God and to neighbour… Justice towards men disposes one to respect the rights of each and to establish in human relationships the harmony that promotes equity with regard to persons and to the common good”.

I have a strong conviction that the only path to progress in our society is for us to return to God with all our hearts (Joel 2:12). As we celebrate the risen Lord, and emerging from the holy season of Lent, let us all seek God in the light of justice for all. If we don’t repent, we shall all perish. The ill-gotten wealth cannot save anybody. God is watching us, from a distance.

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NB: Mark Oguh, a Fellow of Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria and a Financial Management Expert wrote in from St. Anthony’s Parish, Gbaja, Surulere, Lagos. Contact



By Prof. Michael Ogunu


The Church views politics as an important aspect of human life. The human person belongs to the earthly (temporal) as well as heavenly (divine) Kingdom. The public affairs of the earthly kingdom are what constitute politics. The success of public affairs calls for the existence of peace and justice. Peace and justice are necessary and desirable if a nation is to develop and progress. Therefore, Christians have a social responsibility in politics.

Basic Christian Principles for Nigerian Christians in Politics

There are some basic Christian principles to guide the Christian in politics. The Catholic Church has a well articulated Catholic Social Doctrine which is based on the foundation of Holy Scriptures. The following are among the main items on this social teaching as regards political leadership:

  • God is absolute ruler and creator of all men and women and of all our resources. He alone rules by right, and all power belongs to Him. Man is created in the image and likeness of God. Because of this, he enjoys some inalienable rights. No human being should ever be treated less than his dignity demands.
  • At the same time, man is created to live in society. That is why for his self-fulfillment, he must be part of a community. The African wisdom says: “I am because we are”, which means that unless I am in a community, I cannot survive. The fact that man lives in community raises the issue of rights and duties. The role of civil authority, and therefore of those who lead civil authority, is to pursue the common good in line with God’s will and for the good of all.
  • Rulers have to acknowledge the nobility as well as the limit of their role. Their role is noble because the ruler acts in God’s name who alone has absolute power. If that is so, the ruler must handle authority with great care.
  • To misuse power which belongs to God is to insult God. That is the highest moral atrocity. Because the position of the ruler is sacred and noble, it should never be desecrated by greed; pride and dishonesty.
  • There is therefore due limit to political power. On the one hand, there are the limits imposed by the will of God, who remains the Lord of lords and the King of kings. The ruler must respect the will of God. For Christians, this is summarized in the Ten Commandments of God.
  • Not even a democratic majority can legitimately go against the law of God, as we are now seeing in some so-called developed countries, who are legislating in favour of abominations like abortion and same-sex “marriages”. The power of rulers is also limited, on the other hand, with regard to the responsibilities of rulers to the people. Thus, the ruler has no absolute power over his people. He must respect their rights and serve the common good.
  • The citizen, on his part, has the duty to contribute to the common good. Part of this is to promote and defend his or her rights and the rights of others. We have no right to allow ourselves to be treated like animals.
  • There is also the need to pay attention to the need of the weakest. It is a basic principle of Catholic Social Teaching that the society and especially the rulers must take particular care of those who cannot take care of themselves, whether they be physically handicapped, mentally challenged or simply sick, old and aged. The greatness of a nation is to be gauged by how it treats its weakest members, just as the strength of a chain depends on its weakest link. This is important in a country where the poor and the weak tend to be totally neglected while the rich and the powerful are pampered beyond their needs and rights. The bible is full of many injunctions calling for care and attention for the poor, the widows and orphans. (See especially the Book of Deuteronomy, 23:16-26; 24:5-25:4, and also Ex. 22:20-24).

Principles of Good Governance

The following are some basic principles of good governance:

Participatory Democracy: A Government has to listen to the diverse views of its people. It has to consult the citizens from the grassroots before making major decisions. Listening to the views of others, analyzing and synthesizing them is imperative. Democracy is listening and including the majority while accommodating the minority, then coming up with ONE WHOLE IDEA. The PEOPLE must agree on how they want to be governed. A constitution therefore, which is a country’s lifeline, must be community/people owned. People must be governed through their will and consent.

Dignity of the Human Person: Regard for the dignity of the human person means respecting the rights of others and protecting them. Justice has to be dispensed without partiality. All are equal and have to be treated in the same way (cf. Gal 3:28). No person should be discriminated against on account of gender, race, ethnicity, creed or disability. The dignity of all must be upheld; Ideas and policies that are agreed upon should be implemented impartially. There has to be respect of the law by all. Democratic principles must be clear and the will of the people must be supreme if it is in accordance with the will of God.

The rights and duties of the individual, of the family and of the community are contained in the natural and revealed laws of God. The happiness of the individual and the family depends on the rec­ognition of the peoples’ observance of these laws based on the constitution. These must be respected and upheld by good governance.

Visionary Leadership:Visionary leadership is crucial in the running of any country. It must be beneficial to all and must promote the common good. Effective governance must give direction. It must have a vision for the country. Presupposing respect for all persons, focusing on the social well-being and development of every person and promot­ing peace at all levels of the political community. This is good governance.

Leadership with vision has to point to and lead the nation to higher ideals, “Show them the way they must follow and what their course must be” (Ex 18:20). Good governance ensures that sectors such as Agriculture, Education, Health and Natural resources have sustainable plans. It must be able to effectively address issues of unemployment, just wages, gender, justice and sustainable economy. It should not set precedence where well connected peo­ple plunder national institutions in the belief that their actions will be later regularized to make it respectable wealth. Good gov­ernance has to create a conducive environment for the economic development of the people. A visionary leadership devotes its en­ergies to holistic development as opposed to dividing people. The welfare of its peoples is at the centre of priorities.

Integrity and Credibility: Good governance should be credible. This is through social in­tegrity, honesty, faithfulness, and truthfulness in the management of public and private affairs of the country. It must be seen to be hardworking. “Sincerity and truth is what you require. Fill your mind with wisdom” (Ps. 51:6; cf. Ps 91:4; 2 Tim 2:22-25). Every­thing else will fall into place.

Promote Cohesiveness: A cohesive society is mandatory for development and promo­tion of the common good. Effective governance must create har­mony within the nation and its institutions. This is by respecting the right to different opinions, association, movement and owner­ship of private property, as well as right to life and bodily integrity. It should also promote the right to necessities of life and decent living. Good governance has to lead to happiness, peace, prosperity for the in­dividual, family, community and the nation at large.

Good governance must create responsible citizens by promot­ing solidarity, patriotism and respect for others thus leading to unity among the people. As St. Paul states, “Do your best to pre­serve the unity which the spirit gives by means of the peace that binds you together” (Eph 4:3).

Equitable Distribution of Resources: A country’s resources must be shared by ALL, exploited for the benefit of the people and the country. A country’s most precious resource is her people. Therefore, a responsible government has to provide for its people’s shelter, food, education, health and devel­opment.

It has to practice fairness in employment; that is employment by merit. Resources must be well managed for the present and future genera­tions through proper registration. Resources include land, water, forests and people. Natural resources should not be used to enrich a few individuals in pretext of settling squatters. As St. Peter states, “Behave like free men and never use your freedom as an excuse for wickedness. Have respect for everyone and love for your commu­nity, fear for God and honour the emperor” (1 Pet 2:16-17; cf. Gal 5:1). This is social responsibility of freedom and prosperity.

Right to Vote Freely: Citizens have the sovereignty of choice. They have a right to elect their leaders and to drop them when they fail or do not meas­ure up to the standards of the governed. The government must meet the hopes and expectations of the electorate, otherwise it quits (cf. Eph 6:9). Those in authority should always remember that, “They are working for God when they fulfill their duties” (Rom 13:6).

Respect for God: Good governance has respect for God and freedom of conscience. There should be freedom of worship, so long as the worship is not repugnant to social decency, for example devil worship is not a product of freedom of conscience as it has no respect for human rights. Freedom of worship and religion should not infringe on other peoples’ rights.

Good governance has to vet sects and cults that are a threat to the wellbeing of its citizens. It must foster development, good­ness, faith, knowledge, self-control, godliness, brotherly and sis­terly affection (cf. 2 Pet 1:5-9).

Promotion and Protection of the Family: The family is the basic unit of any society. Its welfare has to be the priority of any responsible government. A dependable govern­ment has to provide the necessities of life, food, shelter, health and education to its families. No child should miss school due to lack of school fees or shortage of schools. No person should die from curable illness due to expensive medicine or inaccessibility to health care; street families should be unheard of; family violence, child defilement and rape should be dealt with firmly by the law. Good governance has to protect the born and unborn. Abortion threatens families: As Ronald Reagan once put it, “All those advocating for abortion have been born. They were not aborted”. The family needs a firm foundation as it is through the families that “God will bless all nations” (Gen 12:3).

Sharing of Power: Good governance delegates power. It decentralizes activities for effective service to the people. The delegation of power ensures that there is no temptation of setting personal interests against that of the community. Delegation of power guarantees that the exercise of authority facilitates freedom and responsibility by all. Those in authority should exercise distribution of justice wisely.

A sound constitution is one of the most fundamental factors of successful governance. It has to clearly spell out the role of the legislature, judiciary and executive with no overlap or one being more powerful than the other. It has also to state the implementation strategies, give checks and balances.

Strict Obligations

Christians in politics and governance have a strict obligation to have absolute regard for and defend fundamental contents of Catholic faith and morals.

In this context, it must be noted also that a well-formed Christian conscience does not permit one to vote for a political programme or an individual law which contradicts the fundamental contents of faith and morals. The Christian faith is an integral unity, and thus it is incoherent to isolate some particular element to the detriment of the whole of Catholic doctrine. A political commitment to a single isolated aspect of the Church’s social doctrine does not exhaust one’s responsibility towards the common good. Nor can a Catholic think of delegating his Christian responsibility to others; rather, the Gospel of Jesus Christ gives him this task, so that the truth about man and the world might be proclaimed and put into action.

When political activity comes up against moral principles that do not admit of exception, compromise or derogation, the Catholic commitment becomes more evident and laden with responsibility. In the face of fundamental and inalienable ethical demands, Christians must recognize that what is at stake is the essence of the moral law, which concerns the integral good of the human person. This is the case with laws concerning abortion and euthanasia (not to be confused with the decision to forgo extraordinary treatments, which is morally legitimate). Such laws must defend the basic right to life from conception to natural death. In the same way, it is necessary to recall the duty to respect and protect the rights of the human embryo. Analogously, the family needs to be safeguarded and promoted, based on monogamous marriage between a man and a woman, and protected in its unity and stability in the face of modern laws on divorce: in no way can other forms of cohabitation be placed on the same level as marriage, nor can they receive legal recognition as such. The same is true for the freedom of parents regarding the education of their children; it is an inalienable right recognized also by the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. In the same way, one must consider society’s protection of minors and freedom from modern forms of slavery (drug abuse and prostitution, for example). In addition, there is the right to religious freedom and the develop­ment of an economy that is at the service of the human person and of the common good, with respect for social justice, the principles of human solidarity and subsidiarity, according to which “the rights of all individuals, families, and organizations and their practical implementation must be acknowledged”.

[Prof. Michael Ogunu is Professor of Educational Administration and former Head of the Department of Educational Administration and Foundations in the Faculty of Education, University of Benin]



The devotion to the Passion (sufferings) of Our Lord and Saviour is, of all forms of Catholic devotion, the most ancient, the most venerable, the most universal.

Jesus Himself has written the remembrance of His Passion deep into the hearts of His faithful. In order to imprint most deeply in our souls the remembrance of His Sacred Passion, Christ instituted Holy Mass, the unbloody renewal of the Sacrifice of the Cross.

Perhaps there is no subject for meditation more suitable for every class of persons than the most sacred Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. In it many sinners find the encouragement and graces necessary for their conversion; from it many beginners derive strength and fervor wherewith to subdue their passions; in it many good Christians discover fresh incentives to advance in the paths of virtue. In short, there are none who will not find in it an inexhaustible mine of hidden treasures, and an endless source of graces and spiritual blessings. In all ages it has been a favourite exercise of the Saints, who greatly to their consolation have been in the habit of spending hours, day and night, in meditation on the bitter sufferings of their Saviour. So much is not required of the average devout Christian, but he/she is expected to daily spend half, or at least a quarter of an hour, in attentive consideration of some point of the Passion of Jesus.

How to Meditate on the Passion of Christ

We can practice devotion to the Passion (sufferings) of Our Lord by:

  • Performing the Stations of the Cross (not only during Lent, but throughout the year)
  • Meditating on the Five Sorrowful Mysteries of the Rosary
  • Saying prayers in honour of the Passion such as the  famous  fifteen  prayers  of

St. Bridget which can be found in “PIETA” prayer book. A collection of prayers in honour of the passion can also be found in an excellent little publication (booklet) by TAN Books Publishers entitled “DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF OUR LORD”.

Anne Catherine Emmerich’s famous book on the Passion – THE DOLOROUS PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, is a great treasure. THE DOLOROUS PASSION has been inspiring thousands since it first appeared in 1833 — being based on the detailed visions of Our Lord’s Passion and Death as seen by Venerable Anne Catherine Emmerich (1774 – 1824), a German Augustinian nun, and recorded by Clemens Brentano, a prominent literary figure of the day. A saintly person from her youth and a great mystic and victim soul, Sister Emmerich was privileged by God during almost a lifetime of ecstatic visions to see all the events of Our Lord’s suffering and death, which visions we can now understand in hindsight were a great gift from God to the world. Her account of the Passion and Death of Our Lord Jesus Christ, while faithful to the Bible, is heart-rending, edifying and surprising — because of its intimate detail. THE DOLOROUS PASSION recounts with incredible precision the horrendous sufferings undergone by Our Saviour in His superhumanly heroic act of Redemption. Also illuminating is its description of Mary’s participation in the sufferings of her Son, so that this book gives the reader a poignant understanding of why Our Lady is often called our “Co-Redemptrix” and “Queen of Martyrs”, THE DOLOROUS PASSION is a singular book that conveys a lasting impression of the terrible Agony of Our Lord, of His infinite love for us that motivated His Agony, and how His Passion and Death were brought on by each person’s sins. Copies of the book are available in Pauline bookshops.

Also useful for meditation on the Passion of Our Lord is a book entitled – THE MYSTERY OF THE CROWN OF THORNS written by a Passionist priest. But there can be no substitute for reading and meditating on the accounts of the passion narratives in the Gospels of St. Matthew, Mark and Luke in Catholic Bibles.

In meditating on the Passion of Jesus, one should also meditate on the sorrows of Our Lady, especially those associated with Christ’s suffering and death. The Stabat Mater (At the Cross Her Station Keeping) hymn is perhaps one of the most poignant reminders of the sufferings of Our Lady.

In order to facilitate the practice of this holy exercise, Fr. Ignatius of the Side of Jesus in his book on the Passion of Christ entitled – THE SCHOOL OF JESUS CRUCIFIED has arranged a Meditation, divided into three points, upon the principal mysteries of the Sacred Passion of Christ, for every day of the month.

He advises that whatever mystery of the Passion one takes for the subject of meditation, one should always bestow attentive consideration on the following five points:

  1. The infinite greatness of Him Who suffers.
  2. The excess of suffering and ignominy which He endures.
  3. How great is the love with which He suffers.
  4. The infinite unworthiness and vileness of those for whom He suffers.
  5. That His principal aim in all His sufferings is to be loved by men.

In his words,

Let these reflections sink deep into your mind, and if one of them, or any other point of the meditation which you are reading, should make a lively impression upon your heart, dwell awhile on it without caring to go on any further. You may even make your prayer upon the same point for several days, and even weeks, in succession, if you find it productive of good thoughts, reserving the other points for the following days, and you will soon perceive how useful such repetitions will be to your soul. After your mind has been employed in attentively considering and reflecting upon the mystery and its attendant circumstances, it will not be difficult for your will to be excited and touched by different holy affections, which you ought to pass some short time in exercising with great calmness of spirit, giving free vent to the emotions of your heart, and following the sweet impulses of God’s grace.

The principal affections to which one may excite one’s mind during meditation upon the sufferings of Jesus, according to Fr.  Ignatius, are as follows:

  1. Admiration — How is it possible, you may say, that a God can suffer so much for the love of me, a vile creature? Oh, what excessive love and charity!
  2. Gratitude — By exciting yourself to interior emotions of gratitude and appreciation of the greatness of the benefits bestowed upon you by Jesus in His Passion, feeling how much you are indebted to your dear Redeemer, and resolving constantly to praise and thank Him for His infinite love toward you.
  3. Compassion — By compassionating your Crucified Jesus overwhelmed with sorrow and suffering, and by earnestly desiring that you had been present to have afforded some relief to your most afflicted Lord.
  4. Contrition for your sins — By considering all that those guilty pleasures in which you have indulged contrary to the law of God have cost Jesus Christ, and how large a share you have had in His Passion and Death. Bewail your sins at His feet, and firmly resolve to die rather than ever more to offend a Father so worthy of your love.
  5. Love — By protesting that you will bestow all the affections of your heart upon Him who has so much loved you, and by desiring to have, if possible, a thousand hearts solely occupied in loving Him, and corresponding in some measure with His infinite charity. Offer and consecrate yourself entirely to the love of Jesus Crucified. Desire that He may be known and loved by all men.
  6. Prayer — By asking of Our Lord grace to love Him, to imitate Him, and never to offend Him. Endeavor to inspire your heart with lively feelings of confidence that God will grant all your requests through the merits of the Passion of Jesus Christ. Your most fervent request ought to be for grace to correct some habitual fault, to overcome your predominant passion, and to practice that virtue in which you are most deficient, and which has occupied a prominent place in the subject of your meditation, thereby to imitate Jesus Christ; for the imitation of Christ should be the principal object of every meditation on His Passion. Having made the affections, you should proceed to resolutions. Promise Our Lord that you will never more displease Him by mortal or even deliberate venial sin. Determine to avoid such or such a fault (name it), and to make use of such or such means (specify which). For example, to fly from such or such a house, to avoid such and such a companion, instantly to dismiss this or that thought, immediately to curb those bursts of passion, to place a guard over your eyes, to keep silence on such and such occasions, etc.

It should be remembered that the principal fruit of one’s prayer consists in these resolutions, and far more in keeping them faithfully. Place them in the sacred Wounds of Jesus, and in the hands of Mary, and implore grace to put them in practice. Keep them in view during the whole course of the day, and an occasional examination as to the manner in which you are practicing them will be a most efficacious means of ensuring your fidelity.

Whoever follows the instructions here given, the writer assures us, will discover by experience how easy a practice is meditation on the Passion of Jesus Christ. Meditation is in fact nothing more than the exercise of the memory, understanding and will, upon some mystery or truth of our holy Faith. Now, if we are accustomed to exercise those powers from morning till night on sensible objects which are often sinful, we should be able, with the assistance of God’s grace, to exercise them in the consideration of the bitter Passion of Jesus Christ, our most loving Redeemer.

Benefits Derived from Meditating on the Passion of Christ

Tauler, one of the great mystics of the Middle Ages, says: “Once when a venerable servant of God asked Our Lord what a man merited who exercised himself devoutly in meditating upon His Passion, Christ answered: ‘By such meditation he merits:

  1. To be cleansed from his sins.
  2. To have all his negligences supplied by the merits of My sufferings.
  3. To be strengthened so that he will not easily be overcome by his enemies.
  4. That My grace will be renewed in him as often as he reflects on My sufferings.
  5. That I refuse him nothing that is profitable, if he earnestly ask for it.
  6. That I lead him to perfection before his death.
  7. That I assist him in his last hour, protect him against his enemies, and give him an assurance of salvation’”.

It cleanses us from our sins:- It is impossible for a soul who takes Our Lord’s sufferings seriously to heart, to continue offending God willfully, especially by mortal sin.

St. Alphonsus impresses this upon us by affirming: “A soul who believes in the Passion of Jesus Christ, and frequently thinks thereon, will find it impossible to go on offending her Saviour”.

It strengthens us against temptation:- Frequent and devout meditation on the sufferings of Our Lord has the wonderful power to enable us to overcome our passions. St. Augustine writes in his Confessions that whenever he was tempted by the demon of impurity, he resisted Satan successfully by meditating on the Wounds of Jesus. “As often as I am tempted”, he says, “I seek refuge in the Wounds of Jesus. I fly into the Heart of the mercies of my Lord!”

It will lead us to perfection before our death:- One of the principal sources of our sanctification is the tender and compassionate remembrance of our Saviour’s sufferings. St. Bonaventure addresses these words to the soul seeking perfection: “If thou, O man, wouldst advance from virtue to virtue, if thou wouldst lead a perfect life, then meditate daily on the Passion of Christ. Nothing else can so powerfully urge the soul to holiness. The painful Wounds of our Saviour’s body penetrate even the hardest of hearts and inflame the coldest of souls with love”.

It gives us the assurance of a happy death:- St. AlphonsusLiguori says, “Souls that are tormented by the devil and tremble for their eternal salvation will feel great consolation in withdrawing their eyes from the outward world and fixing them on the Cross where Jesus hangs, bleeding from every wound”.

It insures for us a special glory in Heaven:- This was revealed to St. Gertrude. Once on the feast of St. John the Evangelist she beheld how this beloved Apostle enjoyed a special bliss in Heaven because he had always begun his contemplations with the remembrance of our Saviour’s Passion, of which he had been an eye witness.

Moreover, we should love to meditate upon the Passion because therein our Saviour makes His virtues shine forth with great brilliance. He possesses every virtue in His soul, but the occasions of manifesting them especially arise in His Passion.

His immense love for His Father, His charity for mankind, hatred of sin, forgiveness of injuries, patience, meekness, fortitude, obedience to lawful authority, compassion ― all these virtues shine forth in a heroic manner for our imitation. Jesus in His Passion is our Divine model in suffering. If, therefore, we frequently contemplate His sufferings and strive to imitate His virtues, we shall receive special graces which will transform us little by little into His likeness and prepare us to share in His glory in Heaven.

According to the promises of our Lord to Sister Mary Martha Chambon,

“Those who pray with humility and who meditate on My Passion, shall one day participate in the glory of My Divine wounds. Their members will receive from them a resplendent beauty and glory”.

“The more you shall have contemplated My Painful wounds on this earth, the higher shall be your contemplation of them glorious in Heaven”.

“The soul who during life has honoured and studied the Wounds of Our Lord Jesus Christ and has offered Them to the Eternal Father for the Souls in Purgatory will be accompanied at the moment of death by the Holy Virgin and the Angels; and Our Lord on the Cross, all brilliant in glory will receive her and crown her”.

“My Holy Wounds sanctify souls and insure their spiritual advancement…Offer Me your actions united to My Sacred Wounds, and even the smallest will have an incomprehensible value…

“Offer them often to Me for sinners because I thirst for souls. At each word of the invocation that you utter, I will let a drop of My Blood fall upon the soul of a sinner”.

The Passion of Christ is one of the most profitable sources in attempting to facilitate a more intimate union with Our Lord and it traces a sure path towards holiness. This is why meditating on the Passion of Jesus has been a favourite theme for many of the saints during the whole course of Church History. Our Lord Himself, in numerous occasions throughout the ages by means of all His saints, His most privileged souls and the Magisterium of the Church has spoken of the transcendent importance of meditating on His Passion, and not simply meditating on it but living out interiorly, intensively and continuously all that Jesus Himself suffered for love of us.

St. Augustine assures us that there is no spiritual exercise more fruitful or more useful than the frequent reflection on the sufferings of Our Lord. St. Albert the Great, who had St. Thomas Aquinas as a student, learned in a revelation that by simply thinking of or meditating on the Passion of Jesus Christ, a Christian gains more merits than if he had fasted on bread and water every Friday for a year, or had beaten himself with the discipline (whip) once a week till blood flowed, or had recited the whole Book of Psalms everyday.

Lord Jesus, crucified for love of us, Your heart was pierced by a lance and flowed with blood and water. In your mercy, draw us to your open heart, cleanse us from our sins and help us to grow daily in your love. Amen. 

Prof. Michael Ogunu is the Coordinator of the World Apostolate of Fatima in Africa

Sleekarena looking at Cryptocurrency’s Potential in Nigeria

Sleekarena looking at Cryptocurrency’s Potential in Nigeria

Sleekarena has finally broken the hedge to become one of the peer-to-peer Cryptocurrency marketplaces built on open source bitcoin and blockchain technology.

The need for investing in Cryptocurrency is steadily rising in Africa; specifically in Nigeria as more and more people are gradually gaining trust and confidence in the use of Cryptocurrency. Though Cryptocurrency is relatively new and comes with a learning curve, the benefits are a plethora; thus it is good for both sellers and buyers. In the same vein, cryptocurrency offers a massive wealth distribution globally and presents financial freedom to individuals.

Sleekarena is helping to connect buyers and sellers to easily exchange both bitcoin and litecoin, accepting different payment methods (for example, Bank transfers, Cash deposit, Skrill, PayPal, etc.). As for businesses, Sleekarena provides a quick and easy way for online shoppers to pay using bitcoin with no buyer fee and 0.8% seller fee, no deposit fee, ease of use & Speedy transfer deliveries.

Since Cryptocurrencies are so new, they are also very volatile. This is one of the main reasons mass adoption is taking longer than it should but the future appeal of Cryptocurrencies lies in allowing you ultimate control over your money, with fast secure global transactions, and lower transaction fees when compared to all existing currencies. When used properly and fully understood, it would be the initiator of many emerging systems that will fundamentally change the African economic system.

About Sleekarena:
Sleekarena ( is a peer-to-peer marketplace built on open source bitcoin and blockchain technology. It enables anyone in the world irrespective of location to buy, sell and accept both bitcoin and litecoin instantly. Sleekarena is an emerging cryptocurrecy platform with more than one thousand active monthly users globally and offers a handful of payment methods. Some of the most popular methods include Paypal, Western Union, Bank transfer and Perfect money.

Sleekarena secures users against fraud by employing two-factor authentication and highest-level encryption, holding funds in escrow until the seller has confirmed the payment. This also protects buyers because sellers will not be able to access the value of coins traded once buyers mark the trade as paid.

They also offers six wallet addresses of major cryptocurrency to receive, store and spend digital currencies among which are bitcoin, litecoin, bitcoin cash, ethereum, etc.



A Mystic essentially is anyone who actively and wilfully seeks a direct relationship and union with God through prayer and devotion. A Mystic need not be one who receives extraordinary mystical graces such as vision, ecstasies or inner locutions. In other words, a Mystic need not receive direct communication from God. This article and subsequent ones on the subject, however, will explore the extraordinary mystics who are called by God to a special sacrificial union with Him. By the express Will of God, the Mystics are united with Jesus and Mary in suffering for the conversion of sinners. As victim souls, they are fastened to the Cross in union with Jesus in order to continue our Saviour’s offering to the Father in reparation for our sins. In other words, they are co-redeemers with Christ and their mission is to lead souls to God. They are the great lovers of God who offer and give of themselves completely to “fill up what is lacking in the afflictions of Christ on behalf of his body which is the Church” (Colossians 1:24). The first of the extraordinary Mystics of the Catholic Church which I shall write on is St. Gemma Galgani – The Gem of Christ, Stigmatist and Victim Soul.

Gemma was born on March 12, 1878 in Camigliano, Italy, and soon after her birth, her family moved to Lucca, Italy, where she remained the rest of her life. Her mother Aurelia, a holy woman, died when Gemma was only 8 years old. The loss of her mother at such a young age was a sword of suffering upon her little heart. Eleven years later, at age 19, she also lost her father, leaving her and her brothers and sisters orphans. Not long after this, she became gravely ill with spinal meningitis, becoming bedridden and on the verge of death. It was at this point that the extraordinary graces in her life began to manifest.

The Passionist Venerable Gabriel Possenti (now a Saint) began appearing to her in a series of visions, encouraging her and helping her to make a Novena to the Sacred Heart of Jesus in hopes for a cure. It was at this time that the attending doctors left her to die. On March 3, 1899, Jesus appeared to Gemma and cured her on the last day of the Novena, which coincided with the First Friday of the month (which is devoted to the Sacred Heart of Jesus). It was at this time also that Gemma began receiving inner locutions (interior words) from Jesus, and she began seeing her guardian Angel who inspired and instructed her in the practice of virtues.

A few months later, on the morning of June 8, 1899, Gemma was enlightened during Holy Communion that she would soon be receiving a great grace from Jesus. That evening, the Blessed Mother appeared to her, along with her guardian Angel. The Blessed Virgin told her:

“Jesus my Son loves you very much and He wishes to give you a grace. Do you know how to make yourself worthy of it?” In her misery, she did not know what to answer. Our Lady continued, “I will be your Mother. Will you be a true daughter?” The Blessed Virgin then spread her mantle and covered Gemma with it. At that moment Jesus appeared with all His wounds open, but blood no longer came out of those wounds. Rather, flames of fire issued forth from them and in an instant these flames came to touch Gemma’s hands, feet and heart. Gemma felt as if she would die. “I fell to the floor”, reported Gemma, “but my Mother supported me, keeping me covered in her mantle”. Gemma had to remain several hours in that position. Finally Our Lady kissed her on her forehead, and all vanished, and she found herself kneeling on the floor. But she still felt an intense pain in her hands, feet and heart. She arose to go to bed, and then noticed that blood was flowing from those parts where she felt pain. She covered them as well as she could, and then with the help of her angel, she was able to go to bed. These sufferings and pains, although they afflicted her, filled her with perfect peace. The next morning she was able to go to Communion only with great difficulty, and she put on a pair of gloves in order to hide her hands. She could hardly stand on her feet, and she thought she would die at any minute. The sufferings continued until 3pm on Friday afternoon, the solemnity of the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

It was at this point that Gemma began suffering as a victim soul for the conversion of sinners. She continued this extraordinary mission until the end of her life. At times accompanying the Stigmata were also the Crown of Thorns and also the Scourging which is well documented by her Spiritual Director, Venerable Father Germanus C.P.

Along with suffering in union with Jesus for the conversion of souls, she was also drawn into the most remarkable and sublime ecstasies where she conversed and often pleaded with Jesus for sinners, for the souls in Purgatory, for love and for mercy upon humanity, always telling Jesus of her love for Him, and offering herself as a holocaust and victim to obtain these graces.

In September 1902, Gemma became severely ill with Tuberculosis. By that time the fever of disease had begun to consume the innocent victim of divine Justice. Early in September she became very sick and vomited blood in quantities. One who watched by her bed wrote to her Director: “She is reduced to skin and bones; she suffers excruciating pains. One cannot bear the torment of not knowing what to do to relieve her. Gemma feels great need of you. Come quickly and tell us what to do”.

Thus the months dragged on with Gemma living in the closest union of love and suffering with Jesus Crucified. Through the offering of her sufferings in union with Jesus, the Victim Soul was obtaining countless graces each day for the conversion of sinners. Holy Week arrived and now the victim of Jesus was to be made conformable to His Death. On Good Friday, April 10, 1903 she said to Cecilia Giannini who was attending her: “Don’t leave me until I am nailed to the Cross. I must be crucified with Jesus. He has said to me that His children must be crucified”. She then went into ecstasy and gradually extending her arms, she remained in that posture for about three hours – an image of Jesus dying on the Cross. All that day and night her agony continued.

On the morning of Holy Saturday, April 11, 1903, at about 8:00a.m. she received Viaticum and the Last Anointing. At around 1:30pm, with the crucifix in her hands she said: “Jesus, now it is indeed true that nothing remains for me. If it be Thy will, take me”. Glancing at the picture of Mary, she added: “My Mother, I recommend myself to You. Ask Jesus to have mercy on me”. Then, in a feeble voice: “Jesus, I commend to You this poor soul of mine. Jesus”. These were her last words. She kissed the crucifix, placed it over her heart, folded her hands over it, and closed her eyes. Then, after a few moments, she turned her head on the pillow and ceased to breathe, and thus her holy soul took flight to be forever united with the God whom she loved with all the strength of her heart.

The priest who was reading the last prayers of the Church never knew the moment of her passing. “I have assisted many sick people”, he said, “but I never knew one to die in that way, without a tear or a sigh. She died with a smile and the smile remained on her lips so that I could hardly convince myself that she was really dead”.

And one of the Nursing Sisters from the Order of St.Camillis de Lellis who was caring for Gemma in her last days attested: “We have cared for a great many sick people, but we have never seen anything like this”.

The inscription placed on her tomb read:

 “Gemma Galgani of Lucca, a most innocent virgin, while in her 25th year, consumed rather by the fire of Divine Love than by the violence of disease, flew into the arms of her Heavenly Spouse on Holy Saturday, the eleventh of April, 1903. Peace be to Thee, O sweet soul, in company with the Angels”.

— St. Gemma, pray for us!

By Prof. Michael Ogunu



  1. Introduction

My dear Brothers and Sisters in Christ.

We all know the reason we have all gathered here today. It is to pay our last respect to our brothers and sisters whose remains are before us; pray for the repose of their souls; beg God for fortitude and strength to bear the irreparable loss and solicit for peace in our State. Our deceased brothers and sisters have suffered the fate of dying gruesomely, dying under intense and inhuman torture, dying in an undignified manner for no fault of theirs. We also remember not only those lying here before us today but by extension all those who have been killed since the beginning of these attacks perpetrated by diabolic, criminal terrorists. May the blood of these martyrs bring healing to our land, may their death usher in a new dawn of peace in Benue State, may the excruciating torture they experience unite the people of Benue sate more than ever, and usher in a culture of civilization of love, true justice, peace and end the culture of impunity in our land. We also in a special way remember all those who are affected directly or indirectly due to the orchestrated massacre, but particularly those who are recovering from the injuries sustained due to the unwholesome attacks. We pray for healing and spirit of forgiveness.

  1. Recent Genocidal Attacks in Benue State in Brief

On this day, it is important to recall in brief, the historical antecedence of these attacks. The Benue people in different parts of the State have been under siege from armed terrorists for protracted period of time. These attacks have been unrelenting, brutal, bloody, gruesome, barbaric, and indeed unjustifiable on innocent and vulnerable peasant communities. They have gradually carried the hallmark of genocide and led to the killings of our people in their thousands; several houses and farms have been destroyed, resulting in high rate of poverty and dependency, and with many children out of school. It is on record, that out of the 23 local government areas of the State, the criminal terrorists have unleashed terror in 14 local governments. Those mostly affected in the North West Senatorial District are Katsina-Ala, Logo, Ukum and Kwande. In the North East Senatorial District, they have attacked Guma, Gwer West, Gwer East, Buruku, Tarka, and Makurdi; while in the Benue South, they have attacked Ogbadibo, Agatu, and Apa.

  1. Our Collective Silence  

As we gather to pay tribute to the victims both living and dead of the killing rampage in our state, killings that are really genocides against a defenceless people, we have for the most part remained silent both as individuals and groups. It will be recalled that silence was maintained by the international community in the past concerning the holocaust in Germany against the Jews in 1933, the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 against the Tutsis, the ethnic cleansing against the Armenians in 1992-1995 and until recently, the failure of the world to stand up against the Rohingya persecution in Myanmar. All these, have stained the moral conscience of the world.

Here in our country, the government has in several instances remained silent on issues involving genocide against the people in local governments like Katsina-Ala, Logo, Ukum, Kwande, Guma, Gwer West, Gwer East, Buruku, Tarka, Makurdi, Ogbadibo, Agatu and Apa as earlier mentioned.

History is replete with the sacrifices made for the nation by the people of Benue State; the sacrifices of Benue indigenes and the blood shed for the unity of the Nigerian nation. Now, it seems, our pay back for this sacrifice is the silence and sometimes seeming complicity in the senseless killings, the wanton destruction of the means of livelihood and impoverishment of our people.

  1. General Elections in 2015

We had high hopes in 2015 general elections that ushered in a new government; expecting a nation that defends the weak against the powerful, a nation that will protect itself not only against terrorists in the North East, but also unarmed farmers, against vicious terrorists masquerading themselves as herdsmen whose expansionist territorial appetite seems to be insatiable and to the conquest of the Benue Valley.

What has happened recently in Benue state may be called anything except a communal clash. It will be recalled that Benue people voted overwhelmingly for the government in power, yet what we get in return are the dead that are lying here. Lack of federal presence is exemplified in the broken federal roads from Makurdi-Gboko-Katsina-Ala, and Otukpo-Enugu that cast doubts on responsible leadership or leaving one to wonder whether there is any government in this country at all.

  1. Some Consoling Biblical Texts

Man’s inhumanity to man is an old phenomenon; right at the beginning of the Bible, we are told that Cain killed his brother Abel. Every normal person who reads that story is shocked by Cain’s wickedness, and each time such a brutal and vicious act is repeated, it is difficult to understand why God allows such things to happen. In 2 Maccabees 12: 43-45, Judas Maccabeus led his army in battle, and discovered afterwards that God permitted some of the Israelites to be killed.

Time and again, precious lives and property have been destroyed in innumerable numbers in Benue state. Again one will ask why God would allow such outrageous massacres to be carried out repeatedly.

Brothers and sisters, while it is proper to raise this question, we are here not to attempt to answer the question or how God might judge the moral grey areas of human acts. We are gathered here to pray for our innocent, defenseless and vulnerable brothers and sisters, including children who were brutally murdered in cold blood.

The need to pray for the dead is highlighted in 2 Maccabees 12: 43-45. The passage shows that the pious Jews believed in praying for the dead; a practice, which proves that there is life after death (cf. Lk 20:27). It shows that praying for the dead was done prior to the time of Christ, and the Letter to the Romans states categorically that “we do not live to ourselves, and we do not die to ourselves. If we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord; so then whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord’s” (Rm 14:7-8). Indeed, the early Church continued the practice of praying for the dead, and hence it is praise worthy that we are gathered here in huge numbers to commend the souls of our slain beloved brothers and sisters to the Lord.

As we pray for the peaceful repose of our Benue martyrs, past and present, let us be consoled by the Maccabean text that affirms belief in life after death. This consolation is intensified in the Letter to the Romans 8:31-39, Paul is astounded by God’s unconditional love for all humankind and he offers three assurances, namely; i) that if God is for us, there is nobody or nothing that can be against us; ii) there is no condemnation of anyone, because in the death and resurrection of Christ, we are all justified (Rm 8:33-34); and iii) nothing can separate us from the love of God, be it tribulation, anguish, famine, nakedness or peril, persecution, the sword or death (Rm 8:35-39).

In this regard, death does not separate our slain beloved brothers and sisters from God’s love. We will always be led to victory in Christ because God is for us and there is no separation in our relationship with God by death. This passage should, therefore, comfort and console the immediate family members and relatives of our deceased brothers and sisters; indeed all of us.

In Jn 11:1-44, Mary and Martha separately say to Jesus “if you had been here my brother would not have died but even now I know that God will give you whatever you ask of him” (Jn 11:21, 32). This is our conviction and prayer too that God should grant eternal rest to our slain beloved brothers and sisters.

  1. Schools of Thought


  1. Fulani Pastoralist: The Fulani man that we know was at peace with his neighbour not criminal and diabolic. The Fulani man that we know used a shepherding stick but not an AK 47 riffle. Of course society is dynamic and keeps changing. So a Fulani man may not only walk on foot but move on a motor bike; he not only drinks fula de nono but drink beer and eat pepper soup. These are indices of a changing society. Hence, we call on the Fulani man to adapt to the modern world view and engage in activities that will be beneficial both to him and to society in general.
  2. Cattle Colonies: Recently, it was on the news that the Federal Government through the office of minster of agriculture desires to introduce an interim measure to forestall the regular clashes through the establishment of Cattle Colonies. We wonder if the Federal Government has blessed the anti-open bill that was recently passed into law in Benue state and assisted in providing a more sustainable measure for its implementation. While we applaud the good intention concerning the cattle colonies, we call on the Federal Government to animate the full force of the law on the anti-open grazing bill in Benue state.

iii. Anti-Open Grazing Bill: Given the changing trends of time, the Benue state Government and the Benue House of Assembly have after consultation with the Benue people passed into law the anti-grazing open bill. This Bill was received by the people of the State with a popular acclamation. We have to acknowledge that this is world best practice as far as care for our people is concerned. Unfortunately, we doubt if the bill has enjoyed the full support of the Federal Government. All we want is ranches. Let there be ranches and there will be peace in the land. This is our appeal.

  1. Commendation

We commend our Holy Father Pope Francis for his singular response to the plight of Rohingya people. For our own, we commend the sons and daughters of Benue home and abroad, for their efforts to raise international awareness about the persecution of our people and their efforts towards lasting solution to this recurrent crisis. While we notice the rapid response from non-governmental organizations, and other agents, when these happen, these services regrettably most often come in the aftermath of the mishap. We are equally grateful to Nigerians who genuinely angry and have expressed solidarity with the Benue people. We call on the various governments and agencies in our nation to put in place practical measures to prevent the re-occurrence of this crisis.

We recognize the unflinching efforts of the Benue State Government under the leadership of Samuel Ortom to protecting lives and property. We commend his Amnesty program that recovered about 700 arms and ammunitions and over 800 youths giving up arms. We also acknowledge the desire of the Benue State government for her efforts towards constant peaceful-coexistence and his support in the passing into law anti-open grazing bill. On this note, we also appreciate the efforts of the traditional rulers, security agencies, nongovernmental organizations, media, relief-service providers, Church bodies, and numerous men and women of good will who are offering one service or the other towards the our sustainable peace in the land.

  1. Conclusion

The people of Benue cannot be forgotten in the history of our nation. Our contribution to national growth cannot be overemphasized. In spite of all odds, we are committed in keeping the spirit of Benue alive. These attacks are nonetheless ways of crippling our economic and political force and therefore making us extinct as a people. We hereby condemn in totality the inhuman, brutal, barbaric, gruesome murders of our people. We maintain that no one has any justification to take life. We reiterate our commitment to the protection of life from the moment of conception to natural death.

All we desire is a nation, we would all be proud of, a nation where like the message of Christmas we have just celebrated reminds us the instruments of war, will become instruments of peace as prophet Isaiah says: “he shall judge among the nations and shall rebuke many people and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nations shall not lift up swords against nations neither shall they learn war anymore (Is 2:4). We were heartened to hear at the advent of our new government, the words of our President ‘he belonged to everybody and to nobody’.

In the words of a Lutheran Pastor, Martin Niemoller we call on everyone to be actively involved in the efforts for peaceful co-existence in Nigeria. He is reported to have said

“They first came for the communist and I did not speak up because its a communist, then they came for the Jew but I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew, then they came for the trade unionist and I did not speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist, then they came for the Catholics and I didn’t speak up because I was a protestant…” (let me interrupt the quote) then they came for the Tiv and I didn’t speak up because I was not a Tiv, then they came for the Idomas and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t an Idoma) “then they came for me and by that time, no one was left to speak up”

Ultimately, it is God who brings peace and we have to turn to him to bless our land with lasting peace. Amen.

  1. May the Spirit of Benue arise !

2.May the spirit of Nigeria arise!

  1. May the spirit of the middle belt arise!
  2. The spirit of Benue  must not die!